Title page term paper apa style
Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. Note that in some studies e. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way?
- APA Title Page.
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Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.
If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader.
First Step to Mastering the APA format for term paper: Understanding the Basics
If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study e. What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?
Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found.
If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than.
Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text.
However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.
Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general funnel out.
Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?
If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings.
How to Start Writing an APA-Style Paper
Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?
How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement.
An APA Format Example Shows Ways To Compose A Research Paper
End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author. Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly.
Examples of references to journal articles start on p. Digital object identifiers DOIs are now included for electronic sources see pp. Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized.
If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized. Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment, 21, Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized. Intergroup relations. Aronson Eds. New York: Random House. Book example: Gray, P. Psychology 6 th ed. New York: Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include.
See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title the latter is italicized. Tables can be single or double-spaced. Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean.
In-Text Citations see pp. If you are quoting directly which you should avoid , you also need to include the page number. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts No matter what type of APA paper you are writing, there should be four key sections that you should always include: a title page, an abstract , the main body of the paper and a reference section.
While writing an APA paper may seem difficult or confusing, start by breaking it down into more manageable steps.