Report essay about fire drill
With a fire hose reel, the direction and the flow of water can be controlled by a control nozzle. Bressington, Sprinklers are considered as a means of active fire protection. They are effective in controlling or suppressing fires, depending on its type. They are useful in protection of lives and property. They can help to slow down the spread of a fire and hence are considered as a means to contribute to fire protection. These are referred to as fire suppression sprinkler systems. Table 3 gives a quick view of types of fire suppression sprinkler systems, extinguishing agent, mode of action and uses.
Table 3: Different types of suppression sprinkler systems. Types of fire suppression sprinkler system Extinguishing agent used Mode of action Uses 1. Wet pipe suppression system Water The system is simple and reliable and is commonly used.
The importance of fire drills
It consists of a water source, control valves, system drains, alarms, pipes and sprinkler heads. Water is always present in pipes. As soon sprinkler heads open, water flows from them. Used in warehouses, manufacturing industries, schools, libraries and activity centre. Dry pipe suppression system Water This system is the second most common one used after the wet pipe system. The piping contains pressurized air. As the sprinkler head open, there is a slight delay in the release of water, since the air must come out first, followed then by water.
In warehouses, parking garages, places exposed to freezing; refrigerated coolers. Deluge suppression system Water In this system, sprinklers are open, but water is not present in the piping. As the system is operated by smoke or heat detectors, water flows into the piping and out of the sprinklers.
Used in building openings to decrease the speed of travel of fire. Preaction suppression system Water This system is a bit similar to dry system. A preaction valve is used instead of a deluge valve, but both valves perform the same function. In preaction system, a leak and loss of air in the piping result in the activation of a trouble alarm, which prevents preaction valve from opening, thus no water entering into the pipings. To protect places where accidental activation of the system is unwanted; In museums, In computer rooms 5.
Foam water suppression system Water and a mixture of foam This system releases a mixture of foam and water, resulting in a foam spray on the flammable liquids. To deal with special types of hazards such as flammable liquids. Water spray suppression system Water This system is identical to the deluge system. However, it is designed to protect only one configured hazard, in contrast with deluge systems, designed to cover a horizontal area for example. Protection of hazards. Example: i.
To protect electrical transformers containing oil for cooling or turbo generator bearings.
3.3 Importance and Limitation of Fire Safety Management
Provide external protection to tanks containing flammable materials by cooling the tank and its content, so as to avoid fire. In this system are released as the extinguishing agents. The system operates in such a way as to reduce heat or oxygen. In fact, either the system totally floods the three dimensional area with the extinguishing, until the fire is extinguished, or the agent can locally be applied only on the fire.
To protect highly valuable and sensitive areas:Electronic data protection,Electrical system switch environment,Computer rooms,Process control rooms Source: Reed construction data, 2. In section 74, subsection 1 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act , means of extinguishing fires as per required by the Fire Services are stated as means for fire prevention in every building.
Principles of fire prevention are focused towards avoiding the start of a fire. This requires complete control over any fire hazards. Also, safety rules must be followed so as to avoid, for example, that sources of ignition come into contact with sources of fuel, which would inevitably lead to a fire. On this basis, guidelines have been issued by the Government Fire Services of Mauritius, with regards to fire safety for the service sector. Chapter 8 gives an outline of the fire preventative measures directly linked to causes of fire, such as sparks, defective electrical apparatus, etc… In chapter 6, guidelines concerning safe use, handling and storage of inflammable liquids and design of the store are given to avoid unnecessary and unwanted fires.
Right procedures about construction, installation, protection, maintenance and inspection of electrical systems are discussed in chapter 7, section 1. Housekeeping rules with respect to fire safety are elaborated in section 2. Mauritius Fire Services: construction of buildings, chapter 8, section 5, subsection 1 and 3.
The Mauritius Fire Services guidelines for service sector also provide information about fire detectors in chapter 5, sections 6 to 9. According to the latter, heat, smoke and flame detectors are suitable means for fire detection in a building, depending on the application. According to OSHA, it is the responsibility of the owner of the building, or the employer, to provide for, and install fire detectors.
Fire detection is categorized as a means of active fire protection. Fire can be detected by: i. Persons Say for example, a healthy person can sense the presence of a fire through its odor, flame, smoke and heat. However, a human is not reliable for fire detection, as the person may not be healthy enough to sense the fire and he may not be present at the start of the fire. This accounts for the increased use of automatic fire detectors. Automatic fire detectors. These types of detectors have the ability to sense one of the following: heat, flame or smoke.
They can prove to be highly reliable if they are installed in appropriate areas for sensing a particular aspect of a fire.
Fire Safety Essays (Examples)
It responds to temperature changes; abnormal temperatures, quick increase of temperature. Types Rate-of- rise heat detector Fixed temperature heat detector Description The detector reacts to changes and rise in temperature, from a normal ambient temperature, i. This detector activates the alarm when the temperature increases up to a fixed and preset value. Uses Store containing highly combustible materialsKitchens, garages, dirty and smoky places 2. These detectors detect very quickly large particles of smoke resulting from a fire; for example, carbon particles.
The device detects microscopic particles of smoke. Uses Detection of smoke particles in open flaming fires e. Types Ultraviolet detectors Infrared flame detectors. Description The detectors detect UV radiation emitted at the start of a fire, with a wavelength shorter than nm The detector work with an infrared spectral pattern.
The detectors can sense specific infrared spectral pattern. Uses Warehouses, paint shops, auditoriums, fuel storage places, Source: United States of labor, ; Detection design, 2.
A fire alarm system must be installed in every relevant building which has more than 60 occupants and whereby inflammable substances are stored. Installation, testing and maintenance should meet the requirements of the British Standard for fire detection and alarm system. Hence, a quick response will lead to less damage caused by fire.
Initiating devices are devices which are responsible for raising the fire alarm, or activate the suppression and sprinkler systems in a building in case of fire. Automatic activated devices: these involve automatic devices that can sense physical changes associated to fires. On detection of abnormalities, a fire alarm is raised. This device should normally be located near exits or along escape routes or near emergency staircase.
Government fire services, On discovering a fire, the person breaks the glass cover, and a circuit is opened or closed, which triggers the fire alarm. BS , 2. OSHA section 75, subsection 10 a also recommends provision for notifying devices for people with audible and visible problems. The required notifying devices as stated below might be: 1.
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Audible devices: i. Horns — its loud distinctive sound attracts attention easily. This is of benefit in emergency situations ii. Visual devices: are useful for persons with hearing problems or for persons in areas with high levels of noise. The lights can be rotating or flashing. These types of devices are used in places where it is difficult to here audible signal devices due to the noise level. Strobe lights — These devices are particularly useful in places where flashing lights and audible devices cannot be used, due to difficulty of distinguishing and hearing respectively.
The strobe lights have high intensity flash tubes and are best used in environments with high levels of light. Uses: conference rooms, classrooms, mess and rest rooms 3. Voice evacuation system This system makes use of highly reliable speakers, which are used to notify people about the fire emergency.
How to Write Fire Drill Logs | Bizfluent
An alarm tone is sounded followed by directions given for the evacuation of the area or building. Uses: schools, hospitals, air transport. United States of Labour, 2. An exit can be defined as an unobstructed route from any area in a building to a place of safety. OSHA gives recommendation about means of escape in section 75, subsections 1 and 2. The fire government services guidelines for the service sector serve as support to OSHA concerning escape routes; i.