Essays henry iv part 1

Poins accuses Falstaff of selling his soul to the devil on Good Friday for a cup of wine and a cold capon leg. After Falstaff leaves, Poins suggests a mischief to Hal: They will agree to take part in the next robbery with Falstaff, but at the scene of the crime—when Falstaff is in the act of robbing—they will keep their distance.

Henry IV Part 1 Essay 3

Later, when Falstaff comes away with the loot, they will wear disguises and steal it from him. Such are the reprehensible ways of Prince Henry: he is a carouser, a robber, a rascal, a rogue. And his father is not at all pleased. However, what King Henry IV does not realize is that young Hal is educating himself in the ways of the common people.

He is also masking his true worth and talent by participating in base activities. In one of the most important passages in the play, Prince Henry reveals these thoughts after Poins leaves and Hal is alone:. Infuriated, Hotspur refuses to yield his prisoners to the king.

In fact, so angry is Hotspur that he joins the rebellion against King Henry. While Hotspur returns home to Warkworth Castle to make his traitorous plans, Hal and Poins play their trick on Falstaff, wearing disguises as they rob Falstaff of the money he took from travelers. Falstaff runs off without putting up a fight. He claims he fought a dozen robbers for two hours before yielding his prize and escaping miraculously.


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When Hal reveals himself and Poins as the trick-playing villains who robbed Falstaff, the fat knight says he knew all along that it was Hal who had set upon him. But, he says, he did not resist because he did not wish to injure the future king. One of Henry IV's nobles, Sir John Bracy, arrives at the tavern to report the latest news of the rebellion and to command Hal to return to court in the morning to see his father, the king.

After King Henry learns that some of the rebels, including Hotspur, are marshaling their forces in the west, at the town of Shrewsbury, he commissions Hal to command part of the army. The king himself will ride at the head of the army. In turn, Prince Hal commissions Falstaff to raise and lead a regiment of foot soldiers against the rebels. However, Falstaff drafts only cowards who have money, knowing full well they will offer to buy their way out of military service. When they hand over three hundred pounds each to win their right to return home, Falstaff pockets all the money except a small portion with which to hire riffraff as stand-ins.

Meanwhile, in an eleventh-hour effort to prevent hostilities, King Henry offers the rebels a general pardon, but Hotspur and his forces come out fighting. The year is now ; the site of the fighting is near Shrewsbury on the Welsh-English border. As the battle rages, Hal and Hotspur seek each other out. When they find each other, Hal kills Hotspur. But Hal does not rejoice, for he recognizes that there was greatness in Hotspur. Not wishing to meet their fate, Falstaff lies down and pretends to be dead. Coming upon the corpse of Hotspur, Falstaff eyes it suspiciously, wondering whether Hotspur may still be alive.

He stabs the corpse and decides to take credit for having slain the warrior. He then picks up the corpse and heaves it onto his shoulder, as a hunter would a dead stag, and carries it off.

Essay about Henry IV, Part 1, by Shakespeare

Hal then announces that it was he who slew Hotspur while the fat old knight was lying in a ditch. In the distance, a trumpet blares a retreat, and Hal declares the Battle of Shrewsbury over and the victory won. The two rebel leaders, Worcester and Vernon, are taken prisoner and summarily executed. However, a third prisoner—the valorous Archibald, Earl of Douglas—is released by the generous Prince Hal. However, in a soliloquy in Act I, Scene II a soliloquy reproduced in the plot summary above , Hal discloses that he is leading a life of dissipation in order to learn about the ways of commoners, including vulgar lowlifes, and thereby prepare himself to become a king who knows the minds of his subjects.

In other words, Hal is spying on the common people; he is going to school on them, as it were, pretending to be friends with them when, in reality, he regards them as objects in an experiment designed to serve his aims. This motif recurs throughout literature and history, as demonstrated in ancient times by Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar and in modern times by Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy.

Analysing Henry IV part 1 as described in the Machiavellian analysis

Battlefield Valor as a Stamp of Honor In an age of knights and clashing swords, it was a great honor to distinguish oneself in battle. Exhibiting courage and military skills in combat earned a soldier high praise from his peers and society in general and emblazoned honor on his countenance. Prince Hal, Douglas, Glendower, and other warriors all regard battlefield honor as an extraordinary prize. But it is Hotspur who seems most preoccupied with war and honor—even in his dreams.

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His wife tells him,. An interesting essay would be one that compares Hotspur to young men today who go to war to win recognition, reputation, and honor. Carpe Diem: or Eat, Drink, and Be merry Falstaff lives for the moment—for wine, women, song, and making mischief.

Although he appears to have ensnared Prince Hal in his happy-go-lucky lifestyle, the young prince knows well his responsibilities as heir to the throne and, when the time comes, he doffs his veneer of devil-may-care merrymaker to reveal himself as a brave and wily king-to-be.

Shakespeare says he did not merely overthrow him; he murdered him. This guilt dogs him so relentlessly that he plans one day to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to redeem himself. Internal Strife Henry IV uses his army to fight citizens of his own country. In modern times, governments have often done the same, rightly or wrongly, in Russia, Northern Ireland, Vietnam, Syria, and other countries.

The king wins a great battle, but the war goes on. Hal reforms and redeems himself in his father's eyes when he kills the redoubtable Hotspur. The tone of the play is alternately serious and lighthearted, with the comic episodes of Hal and Falstaff contrasting with the sober business of making war. The tone reflects the mood of the central character, Hal, who early on is a rascally merrymaker and later a terrible engine of war.

The climax of a play or a narrative work, such as a short story or a novel, can be defined as 1 the turning point at which the conflict begins to resolve itself for better or worse, or as 2 the final and most exciting event in a series of events. The climax in Henry IV occurs, according to the first definition, when Prince Hal renounces his wastrel lifestyle and takes up the sword to fight for England.

According to the second definition, the climax occurs when Prince Hal fights to the death with Hotspur. Verse is a collection of lines that follow a regular, rhythmic pattern—in Shakespeare, usually iambic pentameter, a metric scheme in which each line has ten syllables consisting of five unaccented and five accented syllable pairs. In its highest form—when the language is lyrical and the content sublime—verse can become poetry, either rhymed or unrhymed.


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  4. Prose, on the other hand, is the everyday language of conversation, letters, lectures, sermons, newspaper articles, book chapters, and encyclopedia articles. Prose has no rhyme or metric scheme. Why did Shakespeare mix verse including poetry and prose in his plays? Before considering that question, the Shakespeare analyst first needs to learn how to identify the verse and prose passages in a play. That task is easy. In addition, verse passages have a shortened right margin, but prose passages have a full right margin.

    Verse Passage. Now, then, what about single lines—those spoken in conversation as questions, replies, or ripostes? They are in prose if one line has no paired rhyming line or is too abrupt to contain a metric scheme. Following is an example of such a prose passage with single lines. But what of the multi-line passages? Why are some in verse and others in prose? The answer some Shakespeare commentators provide—an answer that is incomplete—is that Shakespeare reserved verse for noble, highborn characters and prose for common, lowborn characters. But it is also true that noble characters in Shakespeare's plays, like Hamlet Hamlet, Prince of Denmark and Volumnia Coriolanus , sometimes speak in prose and that lowborn characters, like the witches in Macbeth , often speak in verse.

    Even the lowest of the low—the beast-man Caliban in The Tempest —speaks often in verse. In The Merchant of Venice , the characters associated with the dirty world of money speak frequently in verse, and the characters associated with the rarefied world of nobility and refinement speak often in prose. Shakespeare's comedy Much Ado About Nothing is almost entirely in prose, with highborn characters only occasionally speaking in verse. Why, then, does Shakespeare alternate between verse and prose?

    Shakespeare used verse to do the following:. Shakespeare used prose to do the following:. Type of Work. They are up already and call for eggs and butter: they will away presently. Why hast thou lost the fresh blood in thy cheeks, And given my treasures and my rights of thee To thick-eyed musing and curst melancholy?