Essay on blood and our body
As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve. These include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature. Others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells. Hemoglobin Hgb is an important protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of our body. The main job of white blood cells, or leukocytes, is to fight infection.
There are several types of white blood cells and each has its own role in fighting bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Types of white blood cells that are most important for helping protect the body from infection and foreign cells include the following:. Help heal wounds not only by fighting infection but also by ingesting matter, such as dead cells, tissue debris, and old red blood cells. The main job of platelets, or thrombocytes, is blood clotting. Platelets are much smaller in size than the other blood cells. They group together to form clumps, or a plug, in the hole of a vessel to stop bleeding.
A CBC count is a measurement of size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in the blood sample. A CBC can be used to find problems with either the production or destruction of blood cells. Variations from the normal number, size, or maturity of the blood cells can be used to mean there is an infection or disease process. Often with an infection, the number of white blood cells will be elevated. Many forms of cancer can affect the production of blood cells.
For instance, an increase in the immature white blood cells in a CBC can be associated with leukemia.
Blood diseases, such as anemia and sickle cell disease, will cause an abnormally low hemoglobin. To aid in diagnosing anemia and other blood disorders and certain cancers of the blood; to monitor blood loss and infection; or to monitor response to cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiation. To evaluate bleeding and clotting disorders and to monitor anticoagulation anticlotting therapies. Search Encyclopedia. Overview of Blood and Blood Components What is blood? Blood is the life-maintaining fluid that circulates through the entire body. What is the function of blood?
Blood function and composition | HealthEngine Blog
The arteries have thicker smooth muscle and connective tissue than the veins to accommodate the higher pressure and speed of freshly-pumped blood. The veins are thinner walled as the pressure and rate of flow are much lower. In addition, veins are structurally different from arteries in that veins have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Because veins have to work against gravity to get blood back to the heart, contraction of skeletal muscle assists with the flow of blood back to the heart.
Circulatory and pulmonary systems
According to Gordon, Z. In the fetus, it extends into the umbilical cord. The umbilical arteries supply deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta.
There are usually two umbilical arteries present together with one umbilical vein in the umbilical cord. The umbilical arteries surround the urinary bladder and then carry all the deoxygenated blood out of the fetus through the umbilical cord. Inside the placenta, the umbilical arteries connect with each other at a distance of approximately 5 mm from the cord insertion in what is called the Hyrtl anastomosis. The umbilical arteries are actually the latter of the internal iliac arteries anterior division of that supply the hind limbs with blood and nutrients in the fetus.
Arterial blood has a inform composition of gasses in all parts of the body. Blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus by the umbilical vein. About half of this enters the fetal ductus venosus and is carried to the inferior vena cava, while the other half enters the liver proper from the inferior border of the liver. The branch of the umbilical vein that supplies the right lobe of the liver first joins with the portal vein.
The blood then moves to the right atrium of the heart. In the fetus, there is an opening between the right and left atrium the foramen ovale , and most of the blood flows through this hole directly into the left atrium from the right atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation. The continuation of this blood flow is into the left ventricle, and from there it is pumped through the aorta into the body. Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the placenta, where carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus are taken up and enter the maternal circulation.
Some of the blood entering the right atrium does not pass directly to the left atrium through the foramen ovale, but enters the right ventricle and is pumped into the pulmonary artery. In the fetus, there is a special connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, called the ductus arteriosus, which directs most of this blood away from the lungs which aren't being used for respiration at this point as the fetus is suspended in amniotic fluid. According to Wang, Y. The blood pressure inside the umbilical vein is approximately 20 mmHg.
The umbilical veins bring the nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood from the placental villi via the umbilical cord to the embryo. Normally there exists only one umbilical vein in the umbilical cord: the unpaired umbilical vein.
How does blood work, and what problems occur?
At the caudal rim of the navel, though, it becomes connected to the two intraembryonic umbilical veins, which go laterally from the umbilical coelom to the heart and empty into the two sinus horns with the omphalomesenteric veins that lie medial from them. In the further development the umbilical veins become quickly included in the developing liver, so that they obtain a connection to the liver's capillary plexus. Now the blood from the left and right umbilical vein gets into the sinus venosus directly on the one hand and via the anastomoses in the liver on the other.
The extrahepatic part of the umbilical veins atrophies rather soon. The blood of the umbilical veins now reaches the sinus venosus mixed with the blood of the omphalomesenteric veins passing through the liver.
Essay on Blood: Top 6 Essays | Circulatory System | Human Physiology
The posthepatic part of the left omphalomesenteric vein atrophies and the right one takes over all of the blood flowing through the liver. In conclusion, mostly, arteries contain oxygenated blood, and veins contain carbon dioxide-rich and oxygen-poor blood; however, there is one exception. The artery leading to the lungs from the heart does not contain any oxygen, and the vein leading from the lungs to the heart does.
This is so the oxygen from the lungs is brought to the heart in order for it to work.
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Everywhere else, the oxygenated vessels arteries carry blood to the rest of the body. Histologically, veins have a large, floppy irregular lumen and a thinner wall. They also contain valves to prevent backflow when blood is being taken back up to the heart. Arteries usually have a round lumen and thick walls, but no valves. This discussion has outlined that blood in the umbilical artery contains less glucose than blood in the umbilical vein, blood in the umbilical artery contains less carbon dioxide than blood in the umbilical vein.
Blood in the umbilical vein contains less oxygen than blood in the umbilical artery. Blood in the umbilical vein contains more urea than blood in the umbilical artery.