Culture ecology environment environmental essay in philosophy technology values

The logic of scientific discovery. This careful, rational, self-critical method of discovering knowledge provides a pathway to escape the contingencies of history Ledford, Ledford, H. Nature , , — Although today technology 1 1 In German, Greek and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English. Here we refer to the use of the term as the application of scientific knowledge, policy and engineering to solve problems, environmental problems in the case of environmental technology.

The word technology comes from two Greek words, transliterated techne and logos. Techne means art, skill, craft, or the way, manner, or means by which a thing is gained. Logos means word, the utterance by which inward thought is expressed, a saying, or an expression. So, literally, technology means words or discourse about the way things are gained.

Scientific and technological literacy for citizenship: What can we learn from the research and other evidence? Science for all Americans [online].

An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

Jacob Bigelow Bigelow, J. Elements of Technology. The role of technology in science: Philosophical perspectives. New York, NY : Springer. The strength of the relationship between science and technology was recognized by Lynn White White, L. The historical roots of our ecologic crisis.


Science New York, N. But it was the emergence of the term applied science , and the conception of technology as functionally dependant and culturally inferior to science, that marked the birth of their convergence Kline, Kline, R. Isis , 86 , — The second phase of industrial development finds technology as the capitalist appropriation of scientific knowledge, leading to the confusion of technology with science today.

For example, when out of the s, there emerged intense anxiety about the effects of altered environmental conditions upon health, it was science that was blamed. The primacy of science in modernity, of technology in postmodernity, and of Ideology in the history of technology. History and Technology , 23 1—2 While technology is generally seen as the fruit of democracy and free enterprise, the implementation of increasingly complex technological systems involved organizational structures that became increasingly centralized and undemocratic.

Historicist theories of scientific rationality. For example, Laudan Laudan, L. Progress and its problems: Toward a theory of scientific growth. Erkenntnis , 15 , Further contributing to the science -technology convergence, has been the pressure for scientific research to deliver impact. This has been driven by developments such as the replacement of the Haldane Principle 2 2 The Haldane Principle describes the notion that "decisions about what to spend research funds on should be made by researchers rather than politicians" Hulme, Hulme, M.

Nature Climate Change , 6 , — View all notes by the Customer Contractor Principle 3 3 According to the Customer Contractor Principle , funds for scientific research should be directed by government Linden, Linden, B. Basic blue skies research in the UK: Are we losing out? Journal of biomedical discovery and Collaboration , 3 1 , 3. View all notes in , that introduced a market-orientated approach and principles that still underpin important conventions between Government Departments and the science community Duderstadt, Duderstadt, J. In line with the National Science Foundation in the US increasingly considering the broader impact of scientists and their ability to articulate benefits to society in funding applications Wiley, Wiley, S.

Doing broader impacts? Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Higher Education Funding Council for England.

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Research impact in the community-based health sciences: An analysis of case studies from the UK Research Excellence Framework. BMC Medicine , 13 1 , These resulted in the boundaries between science and technology becoming blurred Gardner, Gardner, P. The relationship between technology and science. International Journal of Technology and Design Education , 4 , — Status report: Linkage between technology and science. Research Policy , 21 , — The unnatural nature of science.

London, UK : Faber. Science, values, and objectivity. Knowledge and control on the bearing of epistemic values in applied science. Nature of science, scientific inquiry, and socio-scientific issues arising from genetics: A pathway to developing a scientifically literate citizenry. Edited by Peter Machamer and Gereon Wolters. Metaphilosophy , 38 1 , — Technology, time, and the conversations of modernity. In , economist Richard Nelson challenged this model by asking why societies so rich and capable technologically are able to land a person on the moon but unable to deal effectively with many of problems such as slums and poverty, referring to the USA Nelson, Nelson, R.

The moon and the ghetto: An essay on public policy analysis. New York, NY : Norton. How can poor countries afford space programmes? While few real-world problems can be solved by the application of science alone, for the most part, developed countries continue to train people as science specialists. Worse still, the educational systems of developing countries have been encouraged to follow the same pattern. As a result, today technology has become social production and the professional scientist an expert not only in their field but in its application for social change.

Scientists in western societies have enjoyed respect and embody an unassailable wisdom, previously the domain of religious leaders Walton, Walton, D. Appeal to expert opinion: Arguments from authority. Citizens, experts, and the environment. Many factors have contributed to this, including the adoption of expert testimony in courts Lawson, Lawson, J. The law of expert and opinion evidence 2nd ed.

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    Environmental Value Systems

    Tomorrow's law pp. Sydney, Australia : Federation Press , Sydney. Access to justice. Palgrave Communications , 2 , Theories of scientific method: An introduction.

    Deep ecology

    Disciplinary experts are often called on to provide advice across a range of economic challenges, environmental problems and biological risks Carrier, Carrier, M. Making an impact: When science and politics collide. Science Policy, Talking science to power.

    The Guardian. Reconstructing social democracy: New Labour and the Welfare state. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments. Journal of Physics: Conference Series , , They question the neutrality of scientific expertise. Scientific knowledge, controversy, and public decision-making. Felt , R. Smith-Doerr Eds.

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    • The politics of organizational decision-making. In line with the definitions above, environmental science, as the process of understanding how humans interact with the natural environment, and environmental technology, as the process of applying this understanding to address environmental challenges, can be distinguished as interdependent and complementary. Convergence between science and environmental education.

      Science , , — Is there progress in science? Stachowiak Ed. Hamburg, Germany : Felix Meiner Verlag. In practice and because of the wider science-technology convergence discussed above, environmental technology is increasingly being perceived as the products and services offered by the environmental sector 5 5 The environmental goods and services sector, abbreviated as EGSS and also called environment industry or eco-industries, consists of a heterogeneous set of producers of goods and services aiming at the protection of the environment and the management of natural resources.

      (PDF) Philosophy of Technology and the Environment | Paul B Thompson -

      View all notes , instead of the transformative process that can help society reach sustainability. The approach shifts the focus from products to systems, resource efficiency and sustainable development. What environmental technologies aim to achieve, what regulations aim to deliver, and the overall basis of how scientific knowledge is applied to address environmental challenges are seriously affected by how these challenges are defined.

      Anempirical comparison of environmental innovation decisions across OECD countries. Business Strategy and the Environment , 16 , It turns out that employing end of pipe solutions has been historically preferred not because of economic or environmental advantages but because of the way environmental problems have been often framed. For example, if water scarcity is addressed as a water availability challenge, desalination of seawater is an effective solution, providing a seemingly unlimited, constant supply of high-quality drinking water without impairing natural freshwater ecosystems Voulvoulis, Voulvoulis, N.

      River restoration, habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity: A failure of theory or practice? Freshwater Biology , 55 , — The potential of water reuse as a management option for water security under the ecosystem services approach. Desalination and Water Treatment , 53 , — Instead, if the problem is framed as water security including availability and demand , other options arise.

      Deep ecology

      System boundaries can tip the scales in favor of one solution over another. Figure 2 shows various examples where system boundaries have been drawn around a simple model for optimizing wastewater treatment in at least nine different ways in fourteen publications on water quality management. Different choices in setting these boundaries will inevitably affect the results, leading to different solutions Kirk et al.

      Methods for Comparison of Wastewater Treatment Options.